SANTOB DE CARRIÓN

SANTOB DE CARRIÓN (Shem Tov ben Isaac Ardutiel; 13th–14th century), Hebrew and Spanish poet. Nothing is known of his life, except that he lived in Carrión de los Condes. samuel ibn sasson , who lived in the same town, exchanged some poems with him between 1330 and 1340, although only those sent by Ibn Sasson are preserved. By that time, Santob was already "famous in the kingdom of Spain." Santob was no longer young when he dedicated to Pedro I of Castile his Proverbios morales (known also as the Consejos y documentos al rey don Pedro), a series of poems on ethical and intellectual virtues and defects. The work itself was probably written between 1355 and 1360. This exists in five 15th-century manuscripts, one an aljamiado text (i.e., Spanish written in Hebrew characters), and another copy of one of them. Modern editions include 725 stanzas. The philosophical ideas in this first example of gnomic literature in Castilian are not highly original – the sources were probably Hebrew and Arabic ethical poetry – but the expression is concise and poetic. Its main themes are the golden mean in human conduct and the relativity of existence in this world. A thread of melancholic pessimism runs through the work, but it does not negate the didactic and moral elevation of the verses. Américo Castro described him as the first one who expressed in the Spanish language the bitterness of someone who considers himself worthy, even if society does not recognize him as such. He presented him as a "refined rationalist," a "good islamicized Hispano-Hebrew." With a completely different perspective, C. Sánchez Albornoz saw in Santob a model of a perfectly Castilianized Jew. Some of the passages of the book are among the most quoted ones in Spanish literature, such as the comparison of the proverbs written by a Jewish author with the rose born on the thornbush. Taking as a literary model the wisdom sayings of the Book of Proverbs, he addresses a moral message to his contemporaries, including traditional ideas and his own perspective. Santob gives a picture of the Jews of the epoch as "loyal to the law of the land, supportive of universalistic ethical and religious codes, actively engaged in commerce, skeptical of the world and perhaps increasingly of their own social ambience, and, in coded messages, longing for final deliverance" (Perry). The Proverbios enjoyed considerable popularity, both in Jewish and Christian circles. Its maxims were quoted by the kabbalist Abraham ibn Saba and by the Marquis of Santillana, who numbered Santob among the great "trovadores" of his country. Proverbios Morales was published several times, and a critical edition from a manuscript in the Hebrew characters of the 15th century was published by Ig. Gonzalez Llubera (1947); other, more recent editions are that of A. García Calvo (1974), S. Shepard (1986) T.A. Perry (1986) and P. Díaz-Mas and C. Mota (1998). The work has been the object of many commentaries and very different interpretations (Zemke, 1997, mentions more than 160 studies). Though other Jewish poets in Spain wrote poetry in Spanish, Santob de Carrión is the only one whose Spanish verses have survived. Although other Spanish works, such as the Danza de la Muerte, have been attributed to Santob, there is no basis for such attribution. The fact that a Jew wrote in Spanish was not seen with sympathy in the Jewish communities; Ibn Sasson recommended to Santob to abandon "their language" and to write in Hebrew, "the pure language, close to you." Santob's Hebrew writings include a liturgical poem (the viddui gadol "Ribbono shel olam, bi-re'oti beḥurotai") which has been incorporated into the Sephardi ritual for the Day of Atonement. His bakkashah, "Yam Kohelet," consists of 2,000 words, each beginning with the letter mem; it has not yet been conveniently published. Four pizmonim have also been attributed to him. His rhymed narrative (maqāma-like) called Milḥemet ha-Et ve-ha-Misparayim ("The Struggle between the Pen and the Scissors," 1345), contains a debate on the importance of pen and scissors as instruments of writing (Divrei Ḥakhamim (Metz, 1649), 47a). A critical edition of this rhymed prose was published by Y. Nini and M. Fruchtman (1980). Santob also translated the poetic composition of Israel ha-Israeli, a disciple of Asher b. Jehiel, from Arabic into Hebrew, under the title Mitzvot Zemanniyyot, and wrote an extensive introduction. This work, probably written in Soria, is still in manuscript. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Y. Baer, MinḤah le-David (1935), 200; Baer, Spain, 1 (1966), 358, 447; A. Castro, España en su historia (1948), 561–81; Davidson, Oẓar, 4 (1933), 476; Gonzalez Llubera, in: Hispanic Review, 8 (1940), 113–24; Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 529–40;   L. Stein, Untersuchung ueber die Proverbios morales von Santob de Carrion (1900). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. García Calvo, Glosas de sabiduría o Proverbios morales y otras rimas (1974); idem, in: Raíces hebreas en Extremadura (1996), 419–34; S. Shepard, Shem Tov, His World and His Words (1978); idem, Proverbios morales (1986); C. Colahan, in: Sefarad, 39:1 (1979), 87–107; 39:2, 265–308; Y. Nini and M. Fruchtman, Ma'aseh ha-Rav (Milḥemet ha-Et ve-ha-Misparayim) (1980); T.A. Perry, Santob de Carrión, Proverbios morales (1986); idem, The Moral Proverbs of Santob de Carrión: Jewish Wisdom in Christian Spain (1987); J. Zemke, in: La Corónica, 17:1 (1988), 76–89; idem, Critical Approaches to the "Proverbios morales" of Shem Tov de Carrión: An Annotated Bibliography (1997); S. Einbinder, in: HUCA, 65 (1994), 261–76; Schirmann-Fleischer, The History of Hebrew Poetry in Christian Spain and Southern France (Hebrew; 1997), 562–69; Sem Tob de Carrión, Proverbios morales, P. Díaz-Mas and C. Mota (eds.) (1998); M. Raden, in: Hispanófila, 135 (2002), 1–17. (Kenneth R. Scholberg and Abraham Meir Habermann / Angel Sáenz-Badillos (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Santob de Carrion — (* um 1290 in Carrión de los Condes; † um 1369) war ein jüdischer Spruchdichter im Spanien des 14. Jahrhunderts. Seine Arbeiten zählen überwiegend zur Gattung der Moralliteratur. Literatur Sem Tob de Carrión: Proverbios morales. Ed. de Paloma… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • CARRION DE LOS CONDES — CARRION DE LOS CONDES, city in Castile, N. Central Spain, near burgos . Jews were already in the city in 1127. At that time, according to Alfonso de Valladolid or Abner of Burgos, in his Mostrador de Justicia ( Teacher of Righteouness, or Moreh… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Carrión — oder Carrion ist der Name folgender Personen: Benjamín Carrión (1898–1979), ecuadorianischer Schriftsteller Luisito Carrión (* 1962), puerto ricanischer Salsamusiker Manuel Ramírez de Carrión (1579–1652), Taubstummen Pädagoge Pedro Carrión (*… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Carrion, Santob de — (fl. 14th cent)    Spanish poet. His Proverbios morales is a collection of aphorisms dedicated to King Pedro of Castile. It is the principal work by a medieval Jew to enter Spanish literature. Santob de Carrion has been identified with the Hebrew …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Shem Tov — (Rabbi Shem Tov ben Yitzhak Ardutiel, Sem Tob, Santo, Santob de Carrión) (ca. 1290–ca. 1369)    Shem Tov (“Good Name” in Hebrew) was a 14thcentury Castilian Jew who composed poetry in both Spanish and Hebrew during the reigns of Alfonso XI… …   Encyclopedia of medieval literature

  • POETRY — This article is arranged according to the following outline (for modern poetry, see hebrew literature , Modern; see also prosody ): biblical poetry introduction the search for identifiable indicators of biblical poetry the presence of poetry in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE — Biblical and Hebraic Influences One result of the Christian struggle against Muslim invaders of the Iberian peninsula from the eighth century onward was the blending of national and religious aspirations, which revealed itself in Spanish… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Spanische Literatur — Spanische Literatur. Unter spanischer Literatur versteht man die Schriftdenkmäler der Iberischen Halbinsel, mit Ausschluß Portugals, das, seit 1097 unabhängig, eine eigne Sprache und Literatur entwickelt hat. Im engern Sinne begreift man darunter …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Spanish literature — Introduction       the body of literary works produced in Spain. Such works fall into three major language divisions: Castilian, Catalan, and Galician. This article provides a brief historical account of each of these three literatures and… …   Universalium

  • Literatura medieval española — Para las otras literaturas desarrolladas en la Península durante la Edad Media, véase: Literatura gallega medieval; Literatura catalana medieval; Literatura vasca medieval; Literatura hispanoárabe medieval; Literatura hispanohebrea. Libro del… …   Wikipedia Español

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.